Copper Wire »
Magnetic Wire »
CU Wire »
Craft Wire »
Enamel Wire »
Jewelry Wire »
Copper Wire Weight »
Where to find copper wire »
Where to get magnet wire »
Enamelled Copper Wire »
Solid Copper Wire »
Essex Wire »
Wire for Wire Wrapping »
What is Litz Wire? »
Winding Wire »
Enamelled Wire »
Jewelry Making Wire »
Magnetic Coil Wire »
Copper Wire Price »
Copper Magnet Wire »
What is a Solenoid?
A solenoid is an electromagnetic device which consists of a coil of wire and an actuator inside it. The coil is wrapped around a cylinder, that becomes an electromagnet when an electric current flows through it.
The magnetic field created by the coil can either be push or pull, meaning they will either attract or repel the actuator. Solenoids contain a metallic core, usually made of magnetic, or nonmagnetic, iron. Push solenoids have a nonmagnetic core, while the pull solenoid core will be magnetic.
What is Solenoid Wire?
Solenoid wire will be magnet wire, meaning it will be made of either aluminum or, in most cases, copper. It will be insulated, which will allow the wire to be coiled.
Solenoid Wire Specifications
Copper has the highest electrical conductivity of all non-precious metals, which is the reason it is the most common type of conductor. While aluminum is also used, it needs to have a cross section that is 1.6 times bigger to create the same current capability as a copper wire because of its lower conductivity.. Copper wire is less cumbersome than aluminum wire and, in most cases, more energy efficient.
Another reason copper is widely used is its durability. It is 300% stronger than aluminum, which allows it to be used in extreme environments.
Square, round or rectangular are the most common shapes of solenoid wire. The shape of the wire will affect the tightness of the winding. Round wires can't be coiled as tight as square and rectangular wires than because there will be more space between the turn of round wires. Rectangular wires are laminated flat strips.
Square wires are used in tight spaces, as well as higher power applications. Rectangular wires are used in large inductors that function at high voltages.
Solid vs. Stranded
Wires can either be solid or stranded. Solid simply means that is will contain one single piece of insulated wire. Stranded wire, is made up of multiple bare wire strands braided together into one larger wire.
Solenoids will most commonly be solid wire.
So what else makes solid and stranded wire different?
As the number of strands increase, the bendability of the wire also goes up. Since solid wire is one piece, it is the least flexible, so it can only be used in situations where the wire does not require movement. Stranded wires are easier to install. Stranded wires have a minimum of seven strands: six wires braided around one in the middle.
While stranded wire is resistant to metal fatigue, which is when a wire begins to crack from overuse, it is also more likely to experience corrosion because of its greater surface area.
Pictured above: Solid copper wire (left), stranded wire (right)
Insulations protect the turns of bare wires, which have no insulation, from touching. The bare wire would short out if they touched. Insulation allows the wires turns to touch without any problem. Coils can require hundreds, possibly thousands, of wire turns, which would be impossible without insulation.
There are a very large number of different types of insulation to chose from.
Solenoid wires will have insulation types that include:
- Polyester-imide - Comes with increased thermal endurance and resistance to solvents. Has good windability, as a result of low friction.
- Polyurethane (temperature rating of 155° or 180°C) - contains good abrasion resistances, electrical properties, excellent adhesion, impact strength, and low-temperature flexibility.
- Polyurethane Nylon - has the same characteristics are regular polyurethane insulation, but has improved the abrasion resistance and heat shock characteristics for coil and motor windings due to the nylon overcoat.
TEMCo currently has two wires available, both with dual insulation, which will strengthen the wire, and increase its durability. The wire will also take on the properties of both insulations.
- Soderon 155 with a polyurethane insulation and a polyamide overcoat. Results in increased resistance to solvents and will have greater windability.
- GP/MR-200 with a polyester-imide insulation with an overcoat of polyamide-imide. Will allow for an increase in dielectric properties and chemical resistance to solvents and refrigerants.
American wire gauge (AWG) specifies specific standards for round, solid wire. The 44 standard wire gauges, ranging from 0000-40, are used in the United States and Canada.
AWG represents both the weight and the diameter of the wire. As diameter and weight decrease, the gauge increases.
Wire is measured by weight, rather than length. Given that it is much simpler to weight a wound wire than it is to measure long distances of wire, weighing the wire ensures accuracy.
0000 gauge wires weigh 640.5005 lbs per 1000 feet and have a diameter of 11.684 mm. 40 gauge wire weighs 0.0299 lbs per 1000 feet and has a diameter measuring 0.0799 mm.
Temperature Rating/Thermal Class
Thermal class is measured in degrees celsius. It is the temperature that will give the wire a service life of 20,000 hours. To extend the service life of the wire, simply use it at a lower operating temperature.
The insulation will determine the temperature rating of the wire, with 130°, 155°, 180° and 200° being common. The maximum thermal class is 250°.
Bondable Inductor Wire
Bondable wire eliminates the need for bobbins by creating a self supporting coil. An adhesive film, made of epoxy, polyester or polyamide, is applied on top of the usual insulation. It will then activated by heat, allowing the turn to turn windings to bond together.
These are three of the techniques for creating a self supporting coil:
- Oven bonding and resistance bonding use heat to activate the adhesive. Oven bonding necessitates that the wire be heated up in an oven, while resistance bonding uses an electric current. Oven bonding time typically ranges from 10 to 30 minutes, with larger coils taking longer. The time for resistance bonding is entirely dependant on the coil design.
- Solvent bonding is not administered by heat. Instead, the completed coiled will be dipped in a solvent after the winding has completed.
Wire will need to be soldered to either a circuit board, or to another wire through a process called soldering. It requires a metal that has a lower melting point, most likely lead or tin, to be melted down and then applied to the end of the wire, which will merge it to the wire or circuit board when the metal solidifies.
Insulation may or may not have to be removed before a wire can be soldered. It basically depends on the type of wire. Some wires, like the GP/MR-200, do requires insulation removal. Others, such as the Soderon 155 ,wire will not since the insulation will act as a flux.
Since it does not solder well, aluminum can lead to an increase in corrosion and failure.
Breakdown voltage designates the dielectric strength of the wire insulation.
The dielectric strength of the insulation is also known as the breakdown voltage. The insulation build, which is the measurement of the enamel that has been added to the circumference of the bare wire, will determine the breakdown voltage. Insulation build can be single, heavy, triple or quadruple, with single and heavy being the most common.
The breakdown voltage can be of 3 types: Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3, with higher grades meaning higher breakdown voltages. The thicker the insulation the higher the breakdown voltage will be. Wires with smaller gauges will have higher breakdown voltages.
Buy Solenoid Wire
To view TEMCo's solenoid wire selection, simply click the links below. You will find wire with different gauges, temperature ratings and insulations, all made in the USA. If you don't see the wire you need, call TEMCo for a quote today!
"I needed a 3 phase rotary phase converter to run a DoAll Mill."
The family friend I purchased the mill from had purchased one from TEMCo several years ago, and told me that's the company to deal with. Very competitive price, fast delivery, and a solid, quality product. The shipping was fast, and the phase converter was crated very well and had zero damage from shipping. This thing runs so quietly I hardly know it's running.
I HIGHLY recommend TEMCo!
- mrtriton, 3/15/10
"Excellent advice, service & product".
The staff helped determine exactly the size converter I needed, answered any questions I had thoroughly. The unit was shipped quickly & was very welled packed. The product is so well designed that installation was a breeze & the converter works great.
Got me up and running very quickly.
- Michael Hall, 3/25/11
TEMCo is proud to be an acreddited member of the Better Business Bereau Online Reliability Program.
TEMCo's Phase Converter and Transformer customers include:
American Family Radio
Navy Public Works Center
US Army Executive Service
Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC)
Lawrence Livermore National Labs
and many thousands more.
TEMCo products meet the demands of tough industrial applications with dependability and quality.
Since 1968, TEMCo has become a trusted name in Industrial Power Products.
More Customer Feedback
"The service was awesome."
I had many tech question and they spend about 30 mins on the phone answering all ofthem for me. It is not to often to find service like that!!!!! I am so happy and will definitly purchase from them again. A+++++
- MRZ Contracting, 1/12/12
"Perfect FAST transaction..."
They delivered the 5-HP Electric Motor IMMEDIATELY in Perfect Condition. They bent over backwards to enable us to execute payment using an alternative method, Thank You So Much. We are comming back soon for a Power Converter. ! ! !
- R. A. "BOB" KEMP, NEVADA CENTRAL RAILROAD, Henderson, NV, 11/30/11
"You guys were referred by our electrician as well as our local light/electric company."
Very friendly, very knowledgable.
- Low Country Recyclers LLC, 9/08/11
"Have ordered transformers from this company previously and just ordered again."
Quick order shipment and prompt customer service. When they accidentally sent the wrong transformer on one order they immediately sent a replacement without any hassle at all! Good to do business with.
- m4pilot, 8/13/11
"Not only is the equipment from TEMCo the best, they have been the most helpful and pleasant company we have dealt with."
We bought 2 of the TEMCo phase converters for our machine shop as we did not want to bring in 3 phase power. Not only are their converters the best quality in this type of equipment it is made in North America and the most reasonably priced.
The converters have performed flawlessly with hard use and we expect they will continue to serve us for many years.
Not only is the equipment from TEMCo the best, they have been the most helpful and pleasant company we have dealt with.
If anyone needs the type of equipment TEMCo sells, there should be no hesitation, they are the place to purchase it.
- hydropower, 10/01/10