Solenoid Wire

Looking for solenoid wire? Check out our guide below to selecting the correct wire for your needs. TEMCo has your guide for picking the right solenoid wire for you!


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Soderon 155 » GP/MR-200 »

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What is a Solenoid?

A solenoid is an electromagnetic device which consists of a coil of wire and an actuator inside it. The coil is wrapped around a cylinder, that becomes an electromagnet when an electric current flows through it.

The magnetic field created by the coil can either be push or pull, meaning they will either attract or repel the actuator. Solenoids contain a metallic core, usually made of magnetic, or nonmagnetic, iron. Push solenoids have a nonmagnetic core, while the pull solenoid core will be magnetic.

Solenoid Wire

What is Solenoid Wire?

Solenoid wire will be magnet wire, meaning it will be made of either aluminum or, in most cases, copper. It will be insulated, which will allow the wire to be coiled.




Solenoid Wire Specifications


Conductor Type

Copper has the highest electrical conductivity of all non-precious metals, which is the reason it is the most common type of conductor. While aluminum is also used, it needs to have a cross section that is 1.6 times bigger to create the same current capability as a copper wire because of its lower conductivity.. Copper wire is less cumbersome than aluminum wire and, in most cases, more energy efficient.

Another reason copper is widely used is its durability. It is 300% stronger than aluminum, which allows it to be used in extreme environments.



Shape

Square, round or rectangular are the most common shapes of solenoid wire. The shape of the wire will affect the tightness of the winding. Round wires can't be coiled as tight as square and rectangular wires than because there will be more space between the turn of round wires. Rectangular wires are laminated flat strips.

Square wires are used in tight spaces, as well as higher power applications. Rectangular wires are used in large inductors that function at high voltages.


Round Solenoid Wire Rectangular Solenoid Wire

Solid vs. Stranded

Wires can either be solid or stranded. Solid simply means that is will contain one single piece of insulated wire. Stranded wire, is made up of multiple bare wire strands braided together into one larger wire.

Solenoids will most commonly be solid wire.

So what else makes solid and stranded wire different?

As the number of strands increase, the bendability of the wire also goes up. Since solid wire is one piece, it is the least flexible, so it can only be used in situations where the wire does not require movement. Stranded wires are easier to install. Stranded wires have a minimum of seven strands: six wires braided around one in the middle.

While stranded wire is resistant to metal fatigue, which is when a wire begins to crack from overuse, it is also more likely to experience corrosion because of its greater surface area.


Solid Solenoid Wire Stranded Solenoid Wire

Pictured above: Solid copper wire (left), stranded wire (right)


Insulation

Insulations protect the turns of bare wires, which have no insulation, from touching. The bare wire would short out if they touched. Insulation allows the wires turns to touch without any problem. Coils can require hundreds, possibly thousands, of wire turns, which would be impossible without insulation.

There are a very large number of different types of insulation to chose from.

Solenoid wires will have insulation types that include:


  • Polyester-imide - Comes with increased thermal endurance and resistance to solvents. Has good windability, as a result of low friction.
  • Polyurethane (temperature rating of 155° or 180°C) - contains good abrasion resistances, electrical properties, excellent adhesion, impact strength, and low-temperature flexibility.
  • Polyurethane Nylon - has the same characteristics are regular polyurethane insulation, but has improved the abrasion resistance and heat shock characteristics for coil and motor windings due to the nylon overcoat.

TEMCo currently has two wires available, both with dual insulation, which will strengthen the wire, and increase its durability. The wire will also take on the properties of both insulations.


  • Soderon 155 with a polyurethane insulation and a polyamide overcoat. Results in increased resistance to solvents and will have greater windability.
  • GP/MR-200 with a polyester-imide insulation with an overcoat of polyamide-imide. Will allow for an increase in dielectric properties and chemical resistance to solvents and refrigerants.


Solenoid Wire Soderon155 Red Solenoid Wire Soderon155 Green Solenoid Wire GP/MR-200

Wire Gauge

American wire gauge (AWG) specifies specific standards for round, solid wire. The 44 standard wire gauges, ranging from 0000-40, are used in the United States and Canada.

AWG represents both the weight and the diameter of the wire. As diameter and weight decrease, the gauge increases.

Wire is measured by weight, rather than length. Given that it is much simpler to weight a wound wire than it is to measure long distances of wire, weighing the wire ensures accuracy.

0000 gauge wires weigh 640.5005 lbs per 1000 feet and have a diameter of 11.684 mm. 40 gauge wire weighs 0.0299 lbs per 1000 feet and has a diameter measuring 0.0799 mm.


Solenoid Wire Gauge

Temperature Rating/Thermal Class

Thermal class is measured in degrees celsius. It is the temperature that will give the wire a service life of 20,000 hours. To extend the service life of the wire, simply use it at a lower operating temperature.

The insulation will determine the temperature rating of the wire, with 130°, 155°, 180° and 200° being common. The maximum thermal class is 250°.



Bondable Inductor Wire

Bondable wire eliminates the need for bobbins by creating a self supporting coil. An adhesive film, made of epoxy, polyester or polyamide, is applied on top of the usual insulation. It will then activated by heat, allowing the turn to turn windings to bond together.

These are three of the techniques for creating a self supporting coil:


  • Oven bonding and resistance bonding use heat to activate the adhesive. Oven bonding necessitates that the wire be heated up in an oven, while resistance bonding uses an electric current. Oven bonding time typically ranges from 10 to 30 minutes, with larger coils taking longer. The time for resistance bonding is entirely dependant on the coil design.
  • Solvent bonding is not administered by heat. Instead, the completed coiled will be dipped in a solvent after the winding has completed.


Soldering Process

Wire will need to be soldered to either a circuit board, or to another wire through a process called soldering. It requires a metal that has a lower melting point, most likely lead or tin, to be melted down and then applied to the end of the wire, which will merge it to the wire or circuit board when the metal solidifies.

Insulation may or may not have to be removed before a wire can be soldered. It basically depends on the type of wire. Some wires, like the GP/MR-200, do requires insulation removal. Others, such as the Soderon 155 ,wire will not since the insulation will act as a flux.

Since it does not solder well, aluminum can lead to an increase in corrosion and failure.



Breakdown Voltage

Breakdown voltage designates the dielectric strength of the wire insulation.

The dielectric strength of the insulation is also known as the breakdown voltage. The insulation build, which is the measurement of the enamel that has been added to the circumference of the bare wire, will determine the breakdown voltage. Insulation build can be single, heavy, triple or quadruple, with single and heavy being the most common.

The breakdown voltage can be of 3 types: Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3, with higher grades meaning higher breakdown voltages. The thicker the insulation the higher the breakdown voltage will be. Wires with smaller gauges will have higher breakdown voltages.



Buy Solenoid Wire

To view TEMCo's solenoid wire selection, simply click the links below. You will find wire with different gauges, temperature ratings and insulations, all made in the USA. If you don't see the wire you need, call TEMCo for a quote today!

View Soderon 155 Wire Selection View GP/MR-200 Wire Selection

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